what is land cover data

CLC uses a Minimum Mapping Unit (MMU) of 25 ha for areal phenomena and a minimum width of 100 m for linear phenomena. Earth cover is the expression used by ecologist Frederick Edward Clements that has its closest modern equivalent being vegetation. No data point selected. Integrating Recent Land Cover Mapping Efforts to Update the National Gap Analysis Program's Species Habitat Map. Additional vegetation data was collected from Federal, State, and Non-Governmental agencies and Ecological Systems labels were assigned to their existing plots. Click on a pin on the map to see more information. While the ecological system concept emphasizes existing dominant vegetation types, it also incorporates physical components such as landform position, substrates, hydrology, and climate. Rep. IITF-32. Users are advised to read this metadata record carefully for additional details related to the GAP/LANDFIRE National Terrestrial Ecosystems 2011 data set. The data set incorporates the Ecological System classification system developed by NatureServe to represent natural and semi-natural vegetation. As such, there are cases where the Ecological System land cover class may have remained “unchanged” but the general land cover class had changed between 2001 and 2011. The data set uses a 30 meter pixel cell and in most areas a minimum mapping unit of 0.4 ha (1 acre) this means that small patches of vegetation can be missed in the modeling process. Development of a 2001 National Land-Cover Database for the United States. The 2001 GAP class label was maintained if it matched the NLCD general land cover class. Unless your project is within an MPO/COG that has historic and current land use shapefiles that are easy for your GIS guru to access, you can be up a creek without a paddle when it comes to finding good land use data.. One of these is an inventory of land cover in 44 classes, and presented as a cartographic product, at a scale of 1:100 000. Alaska ecosystems have been updated by LANDFIRE to 2012 conditions (LANDFIRE 2012). If the review identified artifacts or errors, the analyst revised the decision rules and the process was repeated until a satisfactory classification was completed. High resolution imagery from Google Earth or ArcGIS base maps was used as the reference imagery to assign the updated 2011 cover class. Half of all habitable land is used for agriculture. The 584 unique classes in the data set can be displayed at three levels of detail, from general (8 classes) to most detailed. Land use shows how people use the landscape – whether for development, conservation, or mixed uses. In Hawai’I it was necessary to supplement the MRLC imagery in order to deal with cloud cover issues in the standard datasets (Gon et al. The Puerto Rico GAP used unsupervised classification to identify major spectral classes and ancillary data (e.g. Again, pattern and extent of each of the mapped classes was visualized and compared against the 2001 Gap Land Cover and the reference imagery. The USGS National Land Cover Database (NLCD) is also available and it provides information about general land cover types with 16 land cover classes (for example, Low Intensity Developed, Deciduous Forest). Accessing the land cover layer’s properties shows the value, name, and n value. Open a terminal on the machine; Install conda (note: if you are using a DSVM on Azure then you can skip this step as conda is preinstalled!) Land cover data documents how much of a region is covered by forests, wetlands, impervious surfaces, agriculture, and other land and water types. In the visualization we see the breakdown of global land area today. Land use involves an element of human activity and reflects human decisions about how land will be used. The datasets were assembled by Inez Fung, Elaine Matthews, and associates during 1984-1991. 2003). Land Cover information is the result of vectorization of raster thematic data originating from... other. Land cover maps represent spatial information on different types (classes) of physical coverage of the Earth's surface, e.g. 10% of the world is covered by glaciers, and a further 19% is barren land – deserts, dry salt flats, beaches, sand dunes, and exposed rocks. For access to previous versions of the land cover dataset please contact Alexa McKerrow: amckerrow@usgs.gov. Plot data were collected using ocular estimates of biotic and abiotic land cover elements, including percent cover of dominant species by life form (i.e. These mosaics represented the spring, summer, and fall seasons. Downloads info. Differences between the 2001 and 2011 GAP maps do not always represent on-the-ground changes in vegetation communities. GAP field samples were collected by traversing navigable roads in a mapping zone and opportunistically selecting plots that met criteria of appropriate size (1-hectare minimum) and composition (stand homogeneity). CART modeling techniques were used to map the majority of the Ecological systems in the Southwest and Northwest regional projects, as well as for LANDFIRE. To see if there’s a MPO or COG in your area, check out this list of MPOs and COGs. 5, p. 345-354. http://www.asprs.org/a/publications/pers/2015journals/PERS_May_2015/HTML/index.html#346/z, Homer, C., C. Huang, L. Yang, B. Wylie, and M. Coan, 2004. The data series are used in a … Coastal managers use land cover data and maps to better understand the impacts of natural phenomena and human use of the landscape. Land cover mapping project. Based on the interpretation of satellite imagery, CLC provides national scale maps of landcover and landcover change on a six year basis for thirty nine countries in Europe. Jimenez, S. Martinuzzi, G. Potts, M. Quinones, M. Solorzona, E. Ventosa. In areas outside the Pine Barren region, that combination would represent a different ecological system. 165. p. Hansen, M., R. Dubayah, and R. DeFries, 1996. The GAP/LANDFIRE National Terrestrial Ecosystems data set includes detailed vegetation and land cover patterns for the continental United States. The New Zealand Land Cover Database (LCDB) is a multi-temporal, thematic classification of New Zealand's land cover. When used in conjunction with protected areas data (PAD-US), terrestrial ecosystems data can be used to identify habitat types that may be under-protected so management activities can be adjusted. The models predicting the land cover distribution for the regional projects used field data collected by gap personnel specifically for the project and vegetation data collected for other projects to instruct the model. Select Access Data 3. Land classifications include: Perennial Cropland, Annual Cropland, Cultivated... other. 2011 Additional Data – Hydrologic Unit Codes [HUCS]. Water types include wetlands or open water. 2008). Permalink. Learn more about NLCD 2011 >> << Back to Land Cover Data Overview: Data and Tools. Spatial Inf. 2006). The Hawaii Gap Project conducted supervised classification of the Landsat data and object based classification of high resolution imagery and for some classes (Gon et al. Land cover data documents how much of a region is covered by forests, wetlands, impervious surfaces, agriculture, and other land and water types. 2013. Land Use/Land Cover data refers to data that is a result of classifying raw satellite data into "land use and land cover" (lulc) categories based on the return value of the satellite image. Classification and regression trees (CART) are a valuable tool for discriminating complex relationships among environmental variables. Statistical tables with aggregated results by land cover and land use at geographical level. Other Land Cover 1:250,000 GeoBase Land Cover . Author: NOAA Other ancillary data sets used depend on the region but include digital data on soils, geology, stream and wetland location, point locations for rare plant communities and fire and tree harvest information. Updates have been produced in 2000 and 2006, and the latest 2012 update is under production. It identifies 33 mainland land cover classes (35 classes once the offshore Chatham Islands are included). Er wird von der EuropäischenUmweltagentur beauftragt und kostenfrei im Rahmen des Copernicus-Programms zur Verfügung gestellt. In these situations, the 2001 GAP map classes were used in the updated map. The best way to save them to your computer is to click on the link with the right mouse button and select "Save Link As..." The different types of land cover can be managed or used quite differently. A variety of other dataset were used in all or some of the regions to help with the land cover classification process. LUCAS — Land Use and Cover Area frame Survey — aims to gather harmonised data on land use/cover through direct observations by land surveyors on the ground. Land cover refers to the vegetative characteristics or manmade constructions on the land’s surface. Land accounts fit the bill, describing how land resource stocks change over time. 2006, Gould et al. USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Cropland Data Layer. 2015), and 2010 LANDFIRE disturbance data (Nelson et al. The Corine Land Cover inventory was initiated in 1985 (reference year 1990). There were unlabeled pixel combinations that persisted after the proximity assignment step. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14358/PERS.70.7.829. How to cite this article, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Land Use and Land Cover The data is presented as a percentage share of the total grid-cell extent for a 5' latitude by 5' longitude grid-cell. Ecological systems are defined as “groups of plant community types that tend to co-occur within landscapes with similar ecological processes, substrates and/or environmental gradients” (Comer et al. For combinations where the NLCD 2011 cover class was not consistent we used the vegetation and LANDFIRE disturbance information to label that unique combination. (2002). Decision trees use a binary partitioning algorithm to successively split a multidimensional “cloud” of explanatory data into increasingly homogenous subsets. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and brightness, greenness and wetness indices were created using Landsat ETM+ coefficients from Huang et al. Remote sensing data recorded over a period of time allows the observation of land cover dynamics. Photogramm. This page offers access to a number of datasets which describe land cover characteristics at 1°×1° resolution and to some sample data product images. Gen. Tech. Regional distribution of land under permanent meadows and pastures and comparison with corresponding land … The NRI uses this classification to account for every acre of non-Federal land within the Nation. This repository holds both the frontend web-application and backend server that make up our "Land Cover Mapping" tool.. Project setup instructions. Choose one of … By nature of their patchy distributions and frequently small extents wetlands, riparian habitats and rare habitat types can be the most frequently missed types. The GAP/LANDFIRE National Terrestrial Ecosystems data represents a detailed vegetation and land cover classification for the Conterminous U.S., Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. The findings on land use come from the NRI data category "Land Cover/Use," which comprises mutually exclusive categories such as cropland, rangeland, forest land, other rural land, developed land, and water areas. Although distinct from the US-NVC, the vegetation component of an ecological system is described by one or more NVC alliances or associations. Land cover is the physical material at the surface of the earth. Land covers include grass, asphalt, trees, bare ground, water, etc. trees, shrubs, grasses, and forbs) and physical data such as elevation, slope, aspect and landform. Despite the data challenges, many planners HAVE to have land use data for their projects. This information is important for decision makers, planners, researchers, private interests and others: U.S. Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program, 20160513, GAP/LANDFIRE National Terrestrial Ecosystems 2011: U.S. Geological Survey, https://doi.org/10.5066/F7ZS2TM0. Rio Piedras, Pr. forest to grassland) were used to prioritize which combinations were evaluated for recoding at this step. U.S. Geological Survey, National Geospatial Technical Operations Center, 20140924, USGS National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD) 20140924 National Shapefile: U.S. Geological Survey: Reston, VA, http://nhd.usgs.gov/wbd.html. Learn More about  LANDFIRE 2012. Finally, the concepts of the Ecological Systems used to define the map legend are inherently variable with a range of physiognomic and phenological conditions possible in a single system. When you visit their websites, search for “GIS”, “data”, “maps” or “land use.” A few tips when looking for MPO/COG data are as follows. This technique was most often used for rare systems with insufficient training data and where additional ancillary data was available to identify image features. EROS did the preprocessing and atmospheric correction of the images and developed three clear, low cloud images for all areas of the United States. Some of the differences are the product of corrections to mis-classifications in the original 2001 map. 2005. After accepting the 2011 NLCD labels for agriculture, water, developed classes, the ecological system matches between 2001 and 2011, and recodes based on disturbance were complete, there were a large number of combinations remaining without a 2011 label assigned. Remote Sens. Note that the data files are in ascii format. Remote Sensing of Environment 86, 554-565. The 2001 National GAP Land Cover was derived using Landsat TM satellite imagery from 1999-2001 as its base. IEEE Earthzine. An area that contained the same vegetation in 2001 and 2011, but was incorrectly mapped in 2001 would show up as “changed.”. This layer contains several land classifications from GeoBase 250K Land Cover, Circa 2000 - Vector. Therefore, the 2001 and 2011 land cover maps should not be used to quantify change directly. These estimates are based on weighted point data. CART tended to work best for widespread matrix systems with sufficient training data. Land-Cover data is a crucial reference dataset that informs a wide variety of activities ranging from environmental planning and protection, economic development, compliance monitoring, enforcement, and strategic decision making. O… Lowry, J. H, Jr., R. D. Ramsey, K. Boykin, D. Bradford, P. Comer, S. Falzarano, W. Kepner, J. Kirby, L. Langs, J. Prior-Magee, G. Manis, L. O’Brien, T. Sajwaj, K. A. Thomas, W. Rieth, S. Schrader, D. Schrupp, K. Schulz, B. Thompson, C. Velasquez, C. Wallace, E. Waller and B. Wolk. 2006). Studying Canada’s Land Cover from Space. Learn more about NLCD 2011 >>. Comer, P., D. Faber-Langendoen, R. Evans, S. Gawler, C. Josse, G. Kittel, S. Menard, S. Pyne, M. Reid, K. Schulz, K. Snowand, J. Teague, 2003. However, there are limitations to the data that users should keep in mind. The combination dataset allowed each analyst to visualize the distribution of the pixels within the un-assigned combinations and evaluate the potential source of difference between the two dates. 2011) boundary data derived from the USGS Watershed Boundary Dataset (USGS NGTOC 2011) was used to label a subset of the pixels in a combination to a new land cover class. Imagery that was used for the Midwest, Northeast and Alaska had been selected and preprocessed by the LANDFIRE Team at EROS. 1 This leaves what we call ‘habitable land’. Corine Land Cover (CLC) ist ein europaweiter Datensatz zur Landbedeckung. 1. 487 pp. Classification trees: An alternative to traditional land cover classifiers. Data Set Information: Contains training and testing data for classifying a high resolution aerial image into 9 types of urban land cover. United States: a working classification of New Zealand land cover characteristics at resolution! Database ( LCDB ) is a pain data recorded over a period time... Plain Pitch Pine Barrens had what is land cover data selected and preprocessed by the LANDFIRE Team general land cover to! Landbedeckung und Landnutzung sind wichtige Indikatoren für Umweltbelastungen durch menschliches Handeln general land cover.. For additional details related to the vegetative characteristics or manmade constructions on the land cover maps for several years..., W. A. gould, W. A. gould, O. M. 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